THE IMPACT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION ON SMEs PERFORMANCE IN GHANA: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL CAPITAL AND GOVERNMENT SUPPORT POLICIES
Keywords:Entrepreneurial orientation, social capital, government support policies, resource base view theory, social capital theory
AbstractThe primary purpose of this study was to propose a conceptual framework on the impact of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on SMEs performance in Ghana: The role of social capital (SC) and government support policies (GSPs). The study reviewed existing literature pertaining the five dimensions of EO and used measures of SC, and GSPs in relation to SMEs performance in Ghana. This study would be anchored on two theories thus the resource-based view and the social capital theories stressing the need for SMEs to focus more on their unique resources that existed within their social network relations. The study would further provide new insight to practitioners to understand and appreciate the role of SC and GSPs on SMEs performance
Abor, J., & Biekpe, N. (2006). Small business financing initiatives in Ghana. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 4(3), 69-77.
Abor, J., & Biekpe, N. (2009). How do we explain the capital structure of SMEs in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from Ghana. Journal of Economic Studies, 36(1), 83-97.
Abor, J., & Quartey, P. (2010). Issues in SME development in Ghana and South Africa. International research journal of finance and economics, 39(6), 215-228.
Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 12(5), 611-631.
Abili, K., & Faraji, H. (2009). A comparative study on organizational social capital in faculties of Humanities, Social and Behavioral Sciences at University of Tehran. Tehran, Iran.
Acar, A. Z., & Özşahin, M. (2018). The relationship among strategic orientations, organizational innovativeness, and business performance. International Journal of Innovation Management, 22(01), 1850009.
Adler, P.S. and Kwon, S-W. (2002), ‘‘Social capital: prospects for a new concept’’, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 27 No. 1, pp. 17-40.
Aladejebi, O. A. (2018). Predictors of firm performance among selected SMEs in Lagos, Nigeria. IJAR, 4(6), 08-17.
Alimo, M. T. (2015). The experiences of successful small business owners in Ghana (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3706325).
Alguezaui, S., & Filieri, R. (2010). Investigating the role of social capital in innovation: sparse versus dense network. Journal of knowledge management, 14(6), 891-909.
Al Mamun, A., Rajennd, A., Muniady, L., Permarupa, P. Y., Zainol, N. R. B., Nawi, N. B. C., &
Malarvizhi, C. A. (2016). Social capital and entrepreneurial competencies: A study among women micro-entrepreneurs in Malaysia. The journal of developing areas, 50(5), 363-370.
Ambad, S. N. A., & Wahab, K. A. (2013). Entrepreneurial orientation among large firms in
Malaysia: Contingent effects of hostile environments. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(16).
Amin, M. (2015). The effect of entrepreneurship orientation and learning orientation on SMEs'
performance: an SEM-PLS approach. Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development, 8(3), 215-230.
Anderson, B. S., Kreiser, P. M., Kuratko, D. F., Hornsby, J. S., & Eshima, Y. (2015). Reconceptualizing entrepreneurial orientation. Strategic management journal, 36(10), 1579-1596.
Arafah, W., Batara, R. R., & Hady, H. (2018). Antecedents and Consequence of Entrepreneurial strategic orientation in Micro Business Unit in Jakarta. International Journal of Entrepreneurship.
Ardic, O. P., Mylenko, N., & Saltane, V. (2011). Small and medium enterprises: A cross-country analysis with a new data set. The World Bank.
Arshad, A. S., Rasli, A., Arshad, A. A., & Zain, Z. M. (2014). The impact of entrepreneurial orientation on business performance: A study of technology-based SMEs in Malaysia. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences, 130(2014), 46-53.
Asare, A. (2014). Strengthening Innovation Performance Among SME's in Tema Metropolitan of Ghana. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, 7(07), 19-28.
Atalay, M., Anafarta, N., & Sarvan, F. (2013). The relationship between innovation and firm performance: An empirical evidence from Turkish automotive supplier industry. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 75, 226-235.
Bamfo, B. A., & Kraa, J. J. (2019). Market orientation and performance of small and medium enterprises in Ghana: The mediating role of innovation. Cogent Business & Management, 6(1), 1605703.
Batjargal, B. (2003). Social capital and entrepreneurial performance in Russia: A longitudinal
study. Organization studies, 24(4), 535-556.
Bature, S. W., Sallehuddin, R. M., Rosli, N. A., & Saad, S. (2018). Proactiveness, Innovativeness
and Firm Performance: The Mediating Role of Organizational Capability. Academy of Strategic Management Journal.
Bhagavatula, S., Elfring, T., Van Tilburg, A., & Van De Bunt, G. G. (2010). How social and human
capital influence opportunity recognition and resource mobilization in India's handloom industry. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(3), 245-260.
Boateng, F. G., Nortey, S., Asamanin Barnie, J., Dwumah, P., Acheampong, M., & Ackom-Sampene, E. (2016). Collapsing microfinance institutions in Ghana: an account of how four expanded and imploded in the Ashanti region. International Journal of African Development, 3(2), 5.
Bloch, H., & Bhattacharya, M. (2016). Promotion of innovation and job growth in small‐and medium‐sized enterprises in Australia: Evidence and policy issues. Australian Economic Review, 49(2), 192-199.
Bourdieu, R (1977). Symbolic power. In D. Gleason (Ed.), Identity and structure: Issues in the
sociology of education (pp. 112-119). Dimiffield, UK: Nefferton.
Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital in J.G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and
research for the sociology of education (pp. 241-258). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bouranta, N., Chitiris, L. and Paravantis, J. (2009). The relationship between internal and external
service quality, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21(3), pp. 275–293. doi: 10.1108/09596110910948297.
Cai, S., Jun, M., & Yang, Z. (2010). Implementing supply chain information integration in China: The role of institutional forces and trust. Journal of Operations Management, 28(3), 257-268.
Chen, M. J., & Hambrick, D. C. (1995). Speed, stealth, and selective attack: How small firms differ from large firms in competitive behavior. Academy of management journal, 38(2), 453-482.
Choi, S. B., Kim, K., Ullah, S. E., & Kang, S. W. (2016). How transformational leadership facilitates innovative behavior of Korean workers. Personnel Review.
Coleman, James S. (1988). Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. The American
Journal of Sociology, Vol. 94.
Coleman JS (1990). Foundations of social theory, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Coulthard, M. (2007). The role of entrepreneurial orientation on firm performance and the potential influence of relational dynamism. Journal of Global Business & Technology, 3(1).
Covin, J.G. and Slevin, D.P. (1989) ‘Strategic management of small firms in hostile and benign
environments’, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp.75–87.
Covin, J.G. and Covin, J. G., Slevin, D. P. (1986). The development and testing of an
organizational-level entrepreneurship scale. In R. Ronstadt, J. A. Hornaday, R. Peterson and K. H. Vesper (eds), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 1986. Center for Entrepreneurial Studies, Wellesley, MA, Babson College, pp. 628-639.
Covin, J. G., Green, K. M., Slevin, D. P. (2006). Strategic process effects on the entrepreneurial
orientation–sales growth rate relationship. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 30(1), 57-81. https://doi.org/10.1177/104225879101600102.
Covin, J. G., & Slevin, D. P. 1991. A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behavior.
Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 16(1): 7-24.
Covin, J. G., & Wales, W. J. (2012). The measurement of entrepreneurial orientation. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 36(4), 677-702.
Dalitso, K., & Peter, Q. (2000). The policy environment for promoting small and medium-sized
enterprises in Ghana and Malawi. University of Manchester.
De Clercq, D., Dimov, D. and Thongpapanl, N. (2013). Organizational social capital, formalization, and internal knowledge sharing in entrepreneurial orientation formation, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 37, No. 3, pp.505–537.
Dess, G. G., G. Lumpkin, and J. G. Covin (1997). Entrepreneurial Strategy Making and Firm Performance: Tests of Contingency and Configurational Models, Strategic Management Journal 18(9), 677–695.
Dimitris, Tzelepis and Dimitris, Skuras., (2004), The effects of regional capital subsidies on firm performance: an empirical study. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development. Vol. 11 no. 1, pp.121-129.
Duru, I. U., Ehidiamhen, P. O., & Chijioke, A. N. (2018). Role of entrepreneurial orientation in the performance of small and medium enterprises: Evidence from Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, 1-21.
Eniola, A. A., & Entebang, H. (2015). Government policy and performance of small and medium business management. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 5(2), 237.
Egena, O., Wombo, D. N., Theresa, E. E., & Bridget, M. N. (2014). Institutional support for small and medium enterprises in Nigeria: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences, 3(9), 481-489.
Elfring, T. & Hulsink, W. (2003). Networks in entrepreneurship: The case of high-technology firms. Small Business Economics, 21(4), 409-422.
Fadda, N. (2018). The effects of entrepreneurial orientation dimensions on performance in the
tourism sector. New England Journal of Entrepreneurship.
Fatoki, O. (2012). The impact of entrepreneurial orientation on access to debt finance and
performance of small and medium enterprises in South Africa. Journal of social sciences, 32(2), 121-131.
Frank, H., Kessler, A., & Fink, M. (2010). Entrepreneurial orientation and business performance—
a replication study. Schmalenbach business review, 62(2), 175-198.
Francisco, D. R. (2018). Change and Resiliency of Traditional Labor Institutions in Response to
the Effects of Special Economic Zones: The Case of Mariveles, Bataan, the Philippines.
Fukuyama, Francis (1995) Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York:
Gedajlovic, E., Honig, B., Moore, C. B., Payne, G. T., & Wright, M. (2013). Social capital and
entrepreneurship: A schema and research agenda. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37(3), 455-478.
Ghana Statistical Service (2016), Integrated Business Establishment Survey, Regional Spatial
Business Report, Ghana Statistical Service, Accra-Ghana.
Gharakhani, D., & Mousakhani, M. (2012). Knowledge management capabilities and SMEs'
organizational performance. Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship.
Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness.
American Journal of Sociology, 91(3), 481-510.
Granovetter, M. (1995). The economic sociology of firms and entrepreneurs. In A. Portes (Ed.),
"he econonzic sociology of immigration (pp. 128-165). NewYork: Russell Sage.
Grant, E. H. C., Muths, E., Katz, R. A., Canessa, S., Adams, M. J., Ballard, J. R., & Harris, M.
C. (2017). Using decision analysis to support proactive management of emerging infectious wildlife diseases. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 15(4), 214-221.
Gunday, G., Ulusoy, G., Kilic, K., & Alpkan, L. (2011). Effects of innovation types on firm
performance. International Journal of production economics, 133(2), 662-676.
Gupta, V.K., & Batra, S. (2016). Entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance in Indian
SMEs: Universal and contingency perspectives. International Small Business Journal, 34, 660–682.
Gupta, V.K., & Wales, W.J. (2017). Assessing organisational performance within entrepreneurial
orientation research: Where have we been and where can we go from here? Journal of Entrepreneurship, 26, 51–76.
Godwin Ahimbisibwe, M., & Abaho, E. (2013). Export entrepreneurial orientation and export
performance of SMEs in Uganda. Global Advanced Research Journal of Management and Business Studies, 2(1), 056-062.
Hameed, I. & Ali, B. (2011). Impact of Entrepreneurial Orientation, Entrepreneurial Management
and Environmental Dynamism on Firm’s Financial Performance. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 3(2), 101-114.
Hao, S., & Song, M. (2016). Technology-driven strategy and firm performance: Are strategic capabilities missing links?. Journal of Business Research, 69(2), 751-759.
Hayat, A., Latif, A., Humayon, A. A., Ahmed, M., & Azeem, M. (2019). The Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Leadership in the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Firm Performance of ICTs SMEs. Journal of Multidisciplinary Approaches in Science, 5(1), 16-23.
Heidenreich, S., & Handrich, M. (2015). What about passive innovation resistance? Investigating adoption‐related behavior from a resistance perspective. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 32(6), 878-903.
Hughes, M., & Morgan, R. E. (2007). Deconstructing the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and business performance at the embryonic stage of firm growth. Industrial marketing management, 36(5), 651-661.
Hongyun, T., Kankam, W. A., Appiah-Twum, F., & Akolgo, I. G. (2019). Effect of Social Capital on Firm Performance: The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation and Dynamic Capability. International Review of Management and Marketing, 9(4), 63.
Hoque, A. S. M. M., & Awang, Z. (2019). Does gender difference play moderating role in the
relationship between entrepreneurial marketing and Bangladeshi SME performance? Accounting, 5(1), 35-52.
Hoque, A. S. M. M., Siddiqui, B. A., Awang, Z. B., & Baharu, S. M. A. T. (2018). Exploratory
factor analysis of entrepreneurial orientation in the context of bangladeshi small and medium enterprises (SMES). European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies.
International Labour Organization (2019), World Employment Social Outlook: Trends
(2019): p. 27-52.
ILO (2017), World Employment and Social Outlook 2017: Sustainable enterprises and jobs:
Formal enterprises and decent work, International Labour Office, Geneva.
Justine, A., Anthony, L., & Max, C. (2005). The impact of entrepreneurial orientation on the
Australian Automotive Component Industry. Monash University, Department of management working paper series.
Kirzner, I. (1973). Competition & Entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Knight, H. F. (1921). Risk, Uncertainty and Profit. Washington, DC: Beard Books.
Kolstad, I. & Wiig, A. (2013) Is it both what you know and who you know? Human capital, social
capital and entrepreneurial success. Journal of International Development, 25, 626-639.
Kombo, H. K., K’Obonyo, P., & Ogutu, M. (2015). Knowledge Strategy and Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Kenya. Journal of Business & Economic Policy, 2(3), 198-207.
Kosa, A., Mohammad, I., & Ajibie, D. (2018). Entrepreneurial orientation and venture
performance in Ethiopia: the moderating role of business sector and enterprise location. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 8(1), 25.
Krack-Hardt, D. & Hanson, J. (1993, July-August). Informal networks: The company behind the
chart. Harvard Business Review, 104.
Kraus, S., Burtscher, J., Vallaster, C., Angerer, M. (2018). Sustainable Entrepreneurship
Orientation: a reflection on status-quo research on factors facilitating responsible managerial practices. Sustainable, 10(2), 444- 465.https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020444.
Kreiser, P., Marino, L., Kuratko, D. and Weaver, K.M. (2013) ‘Disaggregating entrepreneurial
orientation: the non-linear impact of innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking on SME performance’, Small Business Economics, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp.273–291.
Kreiser, P. M., Marino, L. D., & Weaver, K. M. (2002). Assessing the psychometric properties of the entrepreneurial orientation scale: A multi-country analysis. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 26(4), 71-93.
Kropp, F., Lindsay, N. J., & Shoham, A. (2008). Entrepreneurial orientation and international
entrepreneurial business venture startup. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research.
Kusi, A., Opata, C. N., & Narh, T. W. J. (2015). Exploring the factors that hinder the growth and
survival of small businesses in Ghana (a case study of small businesses within Kumasi metropolitan area). American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 5(11), 705.
Kusumawardhani, A., McCarthy, G., & Perera, N. (2009). Framework of entrepreneurial
orientation and networking: a study of SMEs performance in a developing country.
Landstrom, H. (2005) A History of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Research. [n
Landstrom, H. (Ed.) Pioneers in Entrepreneurship and Small Business Research. Springer Science Business Media Inc.
Lee, J. H., Sohn, S. Y., & Ju, Y. H. (2011). How Effective Is Government Support for Korean
Woman entrepreneurs in Small and Medium Enterprise? Journal of Small Business Management, 49(4), 599-616.
Leste, I. T. (2014). Effect of Entrepreneurial orientation on business performance moderated by Government Policy (Study On SMEs).
Lim, S. (2008).Entrepreneurial Orientation and the Performance of Service Business.http://www.decisionscience.org/Proceedings/DSI2008/docs/392- 9586.pdf]
Lin, N. & Dumin, M. (1986). Access to occupations through social ties. Social Networks, 8(4), 365-385.
Lo, M. C., Wang, Y. C., Wah, C. R. J., & Ramayah, T. (2016). Fatores críticos de sucesso para o desempenho organizacional de PMEs na Malásia: uma abordagem parcial de mínimos quadrados. Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios-RBGN, 18(61), 370-391.
Lomberg, C., Urbig, Stöckmann, C., Marino, L.D., & Dickson, P.H. (2017). Entrepreneurial orientation: The dimensions’ shared effects in explaining firm performance. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 41, 973–998.
Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of management review, 21(1), 135-172.
Lumpkin, G. T., Dess, G. G. (2001). Linking two dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation to
firm performance: The moderating role of environment and industry life cycle. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(5), 429–451. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(00)00048-3.
Lumpkin, G. T., Dess, G. G. (2006). The effect of simplicity on the strategy performance
relationship: a note. Journal of Management Studies, 43(7), 1583–1604.
Lyon, D. W., Lumpkin, G. T. & Dess, G. G. (2000) Enhancing Entrepreneurial Orientation
Research: Operationalizing and Measuring a Key Strategic Decision Making Process. Journal of Management, 26, 1055-1085.
Lysons, K. & Farrington, B. (2012). Purchasing and supply chain management. 8th edition.
Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
Mahmood, R. and Hanafi, N. (2013). Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance of
Women-Owned Small and Medium Enterprises in Malaysia: Competitive Advantage as a Mediator. International Journal of Business and Social Science. 4 (1), 82-90.
Mair, J. and Marti, I. (2005) Social Entrepreneurship Research: A Source of Explanation,
Prediction and Delight, Working Paper 546, IESE Business School, University of Nevada.
Maria Saberi, Allam Hamdan, (2018) "The moderating role of governmental support in the
relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth: A study on the GCC countries", Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, https://doi.org/10.1108/JEEE-10-2017-0072 Permanent link to this document: https://doi.org/10.1108/JEEE-10-2017-0072.
Mason, M. C., Floreani, J., Miani, S., Beltrame, F., & Cappelletto, R. (2015). Understanding the impact of entrepreneurial orientation on SMEs’ performance. The role of the financing structure. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, 1649-1661.
Memon, A. A., Ting, H., Ramayah, T., Chuah, F., Cheah, J. (2017). A review of methodological
misconceptions and guidelines related to the application of structural equation modelling: A Malaysian scenario. Journal of applied structural equation modelling, 1(1), 1-13.
Mamun, A. A., Muhammad, N. M. N., & Ismail, M. B. (2017). Absorptive capacity,
innovativeness and the performance of micro-enterprises in Malaysia. Vision, 21(3), 243-249.
Mensah E. (2018). We are suffering; Ghana's entrepreneurs cry
Source: Ghana myjoyonline.com 21st August 2018 - 25 min. Retrieved on 06/11/2019 at 9:28pm.
Mihaela H. Drivers of firm performance: exploring quantitative and qualitative approaches.
Studies in Business and Economics, 12(1), 79-84. doi 10.1515/Sbe-2017-0006.
Miller, D. (1983) ‘The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of firms’, Management Science, Vol. 29, No. 7, pp.770–791.
Miles R. E. and Snow C. C. (1978): Organisation Strategy, Structure and Process, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
Miller, D. and Friesen, P.H. (1983) ‘Strategy-making and environment: the third link’, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp.221–235.
Miller, D., & Chen, M. J. (1994). Sources and consequences of competitive inertia: A study of the US airline industry. Administrative science quarterly, 1-23.
Miller, D., & Chen, M. J. (1996). The simplicity of competitive repertoires: An empirical analysis. Strategic management journal, 17(6), 419-439.
Molina‐Morales, F. X., & Martínez‐Fernández, M. T. (2010). Social networks: effects of social capital on firm innovation. Journal of Small Business Management, 48(2), 258-279.
Mohammed A.I., (June 18, 2018). Rate of business failure in Ghana is unacceptable.
Source: Ghana Business and Financial Times; ggea.net › news; 18th June, 2018.
Retrieved on 12/o1/2020 @ 4:20pm.
Mohammed A. I. (June 7, 2017). ‘75% of businesses in Ghana fail after 3 years’.
Source: Daily Guide Africa; dailyguideafrica.com, 7th June, 2017.
Retrieved on 12/o1/2020 @ 4:22pm.
Mohammed, S. M., Ricardo B. &Harry E. (2014). Entrepreneurial Orientation and Financial
Performance of Nigerian SMES: The Moderating Role of Environment. https://www.academia.edu/8937395/A
Morgan, S.L. & Sorensen, A.B. (1999) Parental networks, social closure and mathematics
learning: a test of Coleman’s social capital explanation of school effects. In Leeuw, F.L. (2002) Reciprocity and Educational Evaluations by European Inspectorates: Assumptions and reality checks. Quality in Higher Education, 8(2), 137-149.
Morris, M.H., Kuratko, D.F. and Covin, J.G., (2008). Corporate Entrepreneurship and
Innovation.2nd ed. Mason, OH, USA: Thomson Higher Education.
Morris, M. H., & Kuratko, D. F. (2002). Corporate entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial
development within organizations. South-Western Pub.
Musah S. Akugri1, Daniel A. Bagah1, & Joseph K. Wulifan (2015). Africa, G. W. The
Contributions of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises to Economic Growth: A Cross-Sectional study of Zebilla in the Bawku West District of Northern Ghana.
Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of management review, 23(2), 242-266.
Nasip, S., Fabeil, N. F., Buncha, M. R., Hui, J. N. L., Sondoh, S., & Abd Halim, D. (2017). Influence of entrepreneurial orientation and social capital on business performance among women entrepreneurs along west coast Sabah Malaysia. Paper presented at the Proceedings of International Conference on Economics.
Nasri, Y., & Zekovski, A. (2014). Entrepreneurial orientation, business performance and the
moderating role of firm life cycles.
Nieto, M. J., & Santamaría, L. (2010). Technological collaboration: Bridging the innovation gap between small and large firms. Journal of small business management, 48(1), 44-69.
Ntiamoah, E. B., Li, D., & Kwamega, M. (2016). Impact of government and other institutions’ support on performance of small and medium enterprises in the agribusiness sector in Ghana. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 6(05), 558.
Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development. (2017). Enhancing the contributions
of SMEs in a global and digitalised economy. In Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level, Paris (Vol. 7, No. June, p. 2017).
Omisakin, O. M., Nakhid, C., Littrell, R., Verbitsky, J. (2016). Entrepreneurial orientation among
migrants and small and medium enterprises. Journal of Business Administration Research, 5(1), 7. http://doi.org/10.5430/jbar.v5n1p7.
Omrane, A. (2015) ‘Entrepreneurs’ social capital and access to external resources: the effects of
social skills’, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp.357–382.
Ong, W. J. & Ismail, B. H. (2012). Entrepreneurial traits and firm serendipity-seeking on SMEs'
performance: the effect of firm size. Journal of Enterprising Culture (JEC), 20(3), 265-286.
Onuoha, B. C. (2012). The Relationship between Government Policies on SMES and
Development: A Study of Selected Countries. AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities, 1(3), 288-309.
Oppong, M., Owiredu, A., & Churchill, R. Q. (2014). Micro and small scale enterprises development in Ghana. European Journal of Accounting Auditing and Finance Research, 2(6), 84-97.
Otieno, S., Bwisa, H.M., & Kihoro, J. M. (2012). Influence of entrepreneurial orientation on
Kenya’s manufacturing firms operating under East African regional integration. International Journal of Learning & Development, 2(1), 299 – 320.
Palmer, C., Niemand, T., Stöckmann, C., Kraus, S., & Kailer, N. (2019). The interplay of entrepreneurial orientation and psychological traits in explaining firm performance. Journal of Business Research, 94, 183-194.
Pett, T. L., & Wolff, J. A. (2010). SME performance: the role of learning orientation and its relationship to market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation. In ICSB World Conference Proceedings (p. 1). International Council for Small Business (ICSB).
Piirala, P. (2012). The impact of entrepreneurial orientation on firm performance: a comparative study of Finnish and German SMEs.
Porter, M. (1985). Creating and sustaining superior performance. Competitive Advantage. NY: Free Press. p167.
Putnam, Robert (1993) Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Putnam, Robert (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of America’s Civic Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Pranowo, A. S., Mulyadi, H. H., Siregar, Z. M. E., & Hendayana, Y. (2018). The influence of entrepreneurship orientation and management capability on performance of small and medium enterprises in Bogor. In Increasing Management Relevance and Competitiveness (pp. 81-84): CRC Press.
Rass, M., Dumbach, M., Danzinger, F., Bullinger, A. C., & Moeslein, K. M. (2013). Open innovation and firm performance: the mediating role of social capital. Creativity and innovation management, 22(2), 177-194.
Ramayah, T., Samat, N., & Lo, M.-C. (2011). Market orientation, service quality and organizational performance in service organizations in Malaysia. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 3(1), 8-27.
Rua, O., França, A., & Ortiz, R. F. (2018). Key drivers of SMEs export performance: the mediating
effect of competitive advantage. Journal of Knowledge Management.
Rauch, A., Wiklund, J., Lumpkin, G.T., Frese, M., (2009). Entrepreneurial Orientation and
Business Performance: An Assessment of Past Research and Suggestions for The Future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 33(3), May, p. 761-781.
Reynolds, P.D., Bygrave, B., & Hay, M. (2003). Global entrepreneurship monitor report. Kansas
City, MO: E. M. Kauffmann Foundation.
Rezaei, J., & Ortt, R. (2018). Entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance: the mediating role
of functional performances. Management Research Review.
Rodrigo-Alarcón, J., García-Villaverde, P. M., Ruiz-Ortega, M. J., & Parra-Requena, G.
(2018). From social capital to entrepreneurial orientation: The mediating role of dynamic capabilities. European Management Journal, 36(2), 195-209.
Sachdev, S. B. and Verma, H. V (2004) ‘Relative importance of service quality’, Journal of
Services Research, 04(01), pp. 93– 116.
Salahuddin, M., Tisdell, C., Burton, L., & Alam, K. (2015). Social capital formation, internet usage and economic growth in Australia: evidence from time series data. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 5(4), 942-953.
Schumpeter, J. A. 1942. Capitalism, socialism, and democracy. New York: Harper & Brothers.
Semrau, T., Ambos, T., & Kraus, S. (2016). Entrepreneurial orientation and SME performance across societal cultures: An international study. Journal of Business Research, 69(5), 1928-1932.
Shan, P., Song, M., & Ju, X. (2016). Entrepreneurial orientation and performance: Is innovation speed a missing link?. Journal of Business Research, 69(2), 683-690.
Shu, C., De Clercq, D., Zhou, Y., & Liu, C. (2019). Government institutional support,
entrepreneurial orientation, strategic renewal, and firm performance in transitional China. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research.
Smith, K. G., Young, G., Becerra, M., & Grimm, C. M. (1996, August). An assessment of the
validity of competitive dynamic research. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 1996, No. 1, pp. 61-65). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.
Sok, P., Snell, L., Lee, W. J., Sok, K. M. (2017). Linking entrepreneurial orientation and small
service firm performance through marketing resources and marketing capability. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 27(1), 231–249. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSTP-01-2016-0001.
Stam, W. & Elfring, T. (2008). Entrepreneurial orientation and new venture performance: The
moderating role of intra-and extra-industry social capital. Academy of Management Journal, 51(1), 97-111.
Stuart , E Toby., (2009), Interorganizational Alliances and the Performance of Firm: A Study of
Growth and Innovation Rates in a High-Technology Industry, Graduate School of Busienss University of Chicago 1101 East 58th Street, Chicagol, IL 60637.
Tang, J., Tang, Z., & Katz, J. A. (2014). Proactiveness, stakeholder–firm power difference, and
product safety and quality of Chinese SMEs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(5), 1-29.
Tundui, C., & Tundui, H. (2013). An empirical analysis of social capital and enterprise
performance in Tanzania: The case of women owned businesses. International Journal of Developing Societies, 2(1), 50-60.
Tsai, W., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital and value creation: The role of intrafirm
networks. Academy of management Journal, 41(4), 464-476.
Tsao, S. M., & Chen, G. Z. (2012). The impact of internationalization on performance and
innovation: The moderating effects of ownership concentration. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 29(3), 617-642.
Uddin, R., Bose, T. K., & Yousuf, S. (2014). Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and performance of
business in Khulna City, Bangladesh. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 27(4), 343-352.
Venkatraman, N. (1989). Strategic orientation of business enterprises: The construct, dimensionality, and measurement. Management science, 35(8), 942-962.
Wang, Y., & Poutziouris, P. (2010). Entrepreneurial risk taking: empirical evidence from UK
family firms. Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 16(5), 370- 388.
Wales, W. J., Patel, P. C., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2013). In pursuit of greatness: CEO narcissism, entrepreneurial orientation, and firm performance variance. Journal of Management Studies, 50(6), 1041-1069.
Walter, A., Auer, M. and Ritter, T., (2006).The impact of network capabilities and entrepreneurial orientation on university spin-off performance.Journal of Business Venturing, 21(4), pp. 541–567.
Wijethunge, W. A. D. S., & Pushpakumari, M. D. (2013). Entrepreneurial orientation and business performance of small and medium scale enterprises of western province of Sri Lanka.
Wiklund, J., & Shepherd, D. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(1), 71-91.
Wiklund, J., Patzelt, H., & Shepherd, D. A. (2009). Building an integrative model of small
business growth. Small Business Economics, 32(4), 351-374.
Wong, S. K. S. (2014). Impacts of environmental turbulence on entrepreneurial orientation and
new product success. European Journal of Innovation Management.
Woolcock, Michael (2001), ‘The Place of Social Capital in Understanding Social and Economic
Outcomes,’ Canadian Journal of Policy Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 11-17.
Woolcock, M., & Sweetser, A. T. (2002). Bright ideas: social capital—the bonds that
connect. ADB Review, 34(2), 26-27.
Yang, C. W. (2008). The relationships among leadership styles, entrepreneurial orientation and
firm performance. Managing Global Transitions, 6(3), 257–275.
Yudha, P. (2019). Exploring the Impact of Social Capital on Entrepreneurial Orientation and
Business Performance (Study on Members of MSMEs Communities in Malang). Profit: Jurnal Administrasi Bisnis, 12(1), 20-31.
Zahra, S. A., & George, G. (2002). International entrepreneurship: The current status of the field
and future research agenda. Strategic entrepreneurship: Creating a new mindset, 255-288.
Authors who publish on this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).