Purwanto Purwanto, Eddy Madiono Sutanto, Asmara Indahingwati


This study examines the influence of political marketing and political will on public leadership and individual performance. The sample used is the people in Surabaya as many as 265 with a random sampling method. Amos 21 is used to test the indirect effect by using bootstrap test. The result of the research shows that political marketing and political will have a significant influence to the success of gaining public leadership, political marketing and marketing will have no significant effect on performance, and public le­a­dership has a significant effect on performance. For the indirect influence, political marketing and political will on individual performance are mediated by public leadership.


Political marketing, political will, performance, public leadership.

Full Text:



Ahearn, K. K., Ferris, G. R., Hochwarter, W. A., Douglas, C., & Ammeter, A. P. (2004). Leader political skill and team performance. Journal of Management, 30(3), 309–327.[CrossRef]

Ammeter, A. P., Douglas, C., Gardner, W. L., Hochwarter, W. A., & Ferris, G. R. (2002). Toward a political theory of leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 13(6), 751–796.[CrossRef]

Anderson, C., Spataro, S. E., & Flynn, F. J. (2008). Personality and organizational culture as determinants of influence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(3), 702–710.[CrossRef]

Balkundi, P. & Kilduff, M. (2005). The ties that lead: A social network approach to leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 17(4), 419–439.[CrossRef]

Barnard, C. I. (1938). The functions of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.[CrossRef]

Biernat, M. & Kobrynowicz, D. (1997). Genderand racebased standards of competence: Lower minimum standards but higher ability standards for devalued groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(3), 544–557.[CrossRef]

Blickle, G., Oerder, K., & Summers, J. K. (2010). The impact of political skill on career success of employees’ representatives. Journal of Vocational Be-havior, 77(3), 383–390.[CrossRef]

Brass, D. J. (2001). Social capital and organizational leadership. In S. J. Zaccaro & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.). The nature of organizational leadership: understanding the performance imperatives confronting today’s leaders (pp. 132–152). San Fran-cisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.[CrossRef]

Brouer, R. L., Douglas, C., Treadway, D. C., & Ferris, G. R. (2013). Leader political skill, relationship quality, and leadership effectiveness: A two-study model test and constructive replication. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 20 (2), 185–198.[CrossRef]

Butler, P. & Collins, N. (1996). Strategic analysis in pol-itical markets. European Journal of Marketing, 30(10/11), 25–36.[CrossRef]

Carson, J. B., Tesluk, P. E., & Marrone, J. A. (2007). Shared leadership in teams: An investigation of antecedent conditions and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 50(5), 1217–1234.[CrossRef]

Churchill, Jr. G. A. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal Marketing Research, 16(1), 64–73.[CrossRef]

Collins, N. & Butler, P. (2003). When marketing models clash with democracy. Journal of Public Affairs, 3(1), 52–62.[CrossRef]

DeRue, D. S. & Ashford, S. J. (2010). Who will lead and who will follow? A social process of leadership identity construction in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 35(4), 627–647.[CrossRef]

Douglas, C. & Ammeter, A. P. (2004). An examination of leader political skill and its effect on ratings of leader effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 537–550.[CrossRef]

Eagly, A. H. & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psycho-logical Review, 109(3), 573–598.[CrossRef]

Ensley, M. D., Hmieleski, K. M., & Pearce, C. L. (2006). The importance of vertical and shared lead-ership within new venture top management teams: Implications for the performance of startups. Leadership Quarterly, 17(3), 217–231.[CrossRef]

Ewen, C., Wihler, A., Frieder, R. E., Blickle, G., Hogan, R., & Ferris, G. R. (2014). Leader advancement motive, political skill, leader behavior, and effectiveness: A moderated mediation extension of socioanalytic theory. Human Performance, 27(5), 373–392.[CrossRef]

Farrell, D. M. & Wortmann, M. (1987). Party strategies in the electoral market: Political marketing in West Germany, Britain and Ireland. European Journal of Political Research, 15, 297–318. [CrossRef]

Ferris, G. R., Treadway, D. C., Brouer, R. L., & Munyon, T. P. (2012). Political skill in the organizational sciences. In G. R. Ferris, & D. C. Treadway, (Eds.), Politics in organizations: Theory and research considerations (pp. 487–528, SIOP Frontier Series volume). New York, NY: Routledge.[CrossRef]

Ferris, G. R., Treadway, D. C., Kolodinsky, R. W., Hochwarter, W. A., Kacmar, C. J., Douglas, C., & Frink, D. D. (2005). Development and validation of the political skill inventory. Journal of Management, 31(1), 126–152.[CrossRef]

Ferris, G. R., Treadway, D. C., Perrewé, P. L., Brouer, R. L., Douglas, C., & Lux, S. (2007). Political skill in organizations. Journal of Management, 33(3), 290–320.[CrossRef]

Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.[CrossRef]

Friedrich, T. L., Vessey, W. B., Schuelke, M. J., Ruark, G. A., & Mumford, M. D. (2009). A framework for understanding collective leadership: The selective utilization of leader and team expertise within networks. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(6), 933–958.[CrossRef]

García-Chas, R., Neira-Fontela, E., & Varela-Neira, C. (2015). Comparing the explanatory capacity of three constructs in the prediction of engineers’ proficiency, adaptivity, and proactivity. Human Resource Management, 54(4), 689–709.[CrossRef]

Goffee, R. & Jones, G. (2005). Managing authenticity: The paradox of great leadership. Harvard Business Review, 83(12), 87–94.[CrossRef]

Harris, K. J., Kacmar, K. M., Zivnuska, S., & Shaw, J. D. (2007). The impact of political skill on impression management effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 278–285.[CrossRef]

Harrop, M. (1990). Political Marketing. Parliamentary Affairs, 43(3), 277–291.[CrossRef]

Harvey, P., Harris, K. J., Kacmar, K. M., Buckless, A., & Pescosolido, A. T. (2014). The impact of political skill on employees’ perceptions of ethical leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21(1), 5–16.[CrossRef]

Henneberg, S. C. (2007). An epistemological perspective on research in political marketing. Journal of Political Marketing, 6, forthcoming.[CrossRef]

Henneberg, S. C. & O'shaughnessy, N. J. (2007). Theory and concept development in political marketing. Journal of Political Marketing, 6(2/3), 5–31.[CrossRef]

Kehr, H. M. (2004). Integrating implicit motives explicit motives and perceived abilities: The compensatory model of work motivation and volition. Academy of Management Review, 29(3), 479–499.[CrossRef]

Knoke, D. & Burt, R. S. (1983). Prominence. In R. S. Burt & M. J. Minor (Eds.), Applied network analysis (pp. 195–222). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.[CrossRef]

Kolodinsky, R. W., Treadway, D. C., & Ferris, G. R. (2007). Political skill and influence effectiveness: Testing portions of an expanded Ferris and Judge (1991) model. Human Relations, 60(12), 1747–1777.[CrossRef]

Kotler, P. (2003). Marketing management, 11th Ed. New Jersey: Person Education, Inc. [CrossRef]

Kotler, P. & Zaltman, G. (1971). Social marketing: An approach to planned social change. Journal of Marketing, 35(3), 3–12.[CrossRef]

Laird, M. D., Zboja, J. J., Martinez, A. D., & Ferris, G. R. (2013). Performance and political skill in personal reputation assessments. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28(6), 661–676.[CrossRef]

Lord, R. G. & Dinh, J. E. (2014). What have we learned that is critical in understanding leadership perceptions and leader-performance relations? Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 7 (2), 158–177.[CrossRef]

Lord, R. G. & Maher, K. J. (1991). People and organizations, leadership and information processing: Linking perceptions and performance volume 1. Cambridge, MA: Unwin Hyman.[CrossRef]

Lvina, E., Maher, L.P., & Harris, J.N. (2017). Political skill, trust, and efficacy in teams. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 24(1), 95–105.[CrossRef]

Mauser, G. A. (1983) Political Marketing: An ap-proach to campaign strategy. New York, NY, USA: Praeger.[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. C. (1975). Power: The inner experience. New York, NY: Irvington.[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. C., Koestner, R., & Weinberger, J. (1989). How do self attributed and implicit motives differ? Psychological Review, 96(4), 690–702.[CrossRef]

Mintzberg, H. (1983). Power in and around organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.[CrossRef]

Neubert, M. J. & Taggar, S. (2004). Pathways to informal leadership: The moderating role of gender on the relationship of individual differences and team member network centrality to informal leadership emergence. Leadership Quarterly, 15 (2), 175–194.[CrossRef]

Newman, B. I. (2002). Editorial: The role of marketing in politics. Journal of Political Marketing, 1, 1–5.[CrossRef]

Niffenegger, P. B. (1989). Strategis for success from the political marketers. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 6(1), 45–51.[CrossRef]

O'Cass, A. (1996). Political marketing and marketing concept. European Journal of Marketing, 30(10/11), 37–53.[CrossRef]

--------------- (2001). Political marketing: An investigation of the political marketing concept and political market orientation in Australian politics. European Journal of Marketing, 35(9/10), 1003–1025.[CrossRef]

Osborn, R. N., Hunt, J. G., & Jauch, L. R. (2002). Toward a contextual theory of leadership. Leader-ship Quarterly, 13(6), 797–837.[CrossRef]

O’Shaughnessy, N. J. (1990). The phenomenon of poli-tical marketing. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.[CrossRef]

---------------- (2006). Election 2005: The art and science of political marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 22, 233–240.[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. S. & Lord, R. G. (1981). Causal attributions and perceptions of leadership. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 28 (2), 143–163.[CrossRef]

Preacher, K. J. & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891.[CrossRef]

Raffel, J. A., Leisink, P., & Middlebrooks, A. E. (2004). Conclusion. In J. A. Raffel, P. Leisink, & A. E. Middlebrooks (Eds.), Public sector leadership: International challenges and perspectives (pp. 377–388). Chaltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.[CrossRef]

Reid, D. M. (1988). Marketing the political product. European Journal of Marketing, 22(9), 34–47.[CrossRef]

Scott, W. G. (1961). Organization theory: An overview and an appraisal. Academy of Management Journal, 4(1), 7–26.[CrossRef]

Semadar, A., Robins, G., & Ferris, G. R. (2006). Comparing the validity of multiple social effectiveness constructs in the prediction of managerial job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(4), 443–461.[CrossRef]

Shaughnessy, B. A., Treadway, D. C., Breland, J. W., & Perrewé, P. L. (2017). Informal leadership status and individual performance: The roles of political skill and political will. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 24(1), 83–94.[CrossRef]

Smith, G. & Saunders, J. (1990). The application of marketing to British politics. Journal of Marketing Management, 5(3), 307–323.[CrossRef]

Sturman, M. C. (2003). Searching for the inverted U-shaped relationship between time and performance: Metaanalyses of the experience/performance tenure/performance and age/performance rela-tionships. Journal of Management, 29(5), 609–640.[CrossRef]

Treadway, D. C. (2012). Political will in organizations. In G. R. Ferris & D. C. Treadway (Eds.), Politics in organizations: Theory and research considerations (pp. 531–556). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor and Francis.[CrossRef]

Treadway, D. C., Douglas, C., Ellen, B. P. III, Summers, J. K., & Ferris, G. R. (2014). Leader political skill and team effectiveness: The positioning of political skill in the framework of leader competencies. In R. E. Riggio & S. J. Tan (Eds.), Leader interpersonal and influence skills: The soft skills of leadership (173–206). New York, NY: Routledge.[CrossRef]

Treadway, D. C., Ferris, G. R., Duke, A. B., Adams, G., & Thatcher, J. B. (2007). The moderating role of subordinate political skill on supervisors’ impressions of subordinate ingratiation and ratings of interpersonal facilitation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(3), 848–855.[CrossRef]

Treadway, D. C., Hochwarter, W. A., Kacmar, C. J., & Ferris, G. R. (2005). Political will, political skill, and political behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(3), 229–245.[CrossRef]

Van Velsor, E., & Leslie, J. B. (1995). Why executives derail: Perspectives across time and cultures. Academy of Management Executive, 9(4), 62–72.[CrossRef]

Van Wart, M. & Dicke, L. A. (2007). Administrative leadership in the public sector. NY, USA: M. E. Sharpe.[CrossRef]

Venkataramani, V., Richter, A. W., & Clarke, R. (2014). Creative benefits from well connected leaders: Leader social network ties as facilitators of employee radical creativity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(5), 966–975.[CrossRef]

Waldman, D. A. & Avolio, B. J. (1986). A meta analysis of age differences in job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(1), 33–38.[CrossRef]

Wring, D. (1997). Reconciling marketing with political science: Theories of political marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 13(7), 651–663.[CrossRef]

Wu, L. Z., Kwan, H. K., Wei, L. Q., & Liu, J. (2013). Ingratiation in the workplace: The role of subordinate and supervisor political skill. Journal of Management Studies, 50(6), 991–1017.[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z., Waldman, D. A., & Wang, Z. (2012). A multilevel investigation of leader member exchange informal leader emergence and individual and team performance. Personnel Psychology, 65(1), 49–78.[CrossRef]


The Journal is published by Faculty of Economics, Department of Management - Petra Christian University. It available online supported by Directorate General of Higher Education - Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia.

©All right reserved 2016.Jurnal Manajemen dan Kewirausahaan, ISSN: 1411-1438, e-ISSN: 2338-8234

web stats
View My Stats